Peranan Ibu Dalam Keluarga

KELUARGA merupakan suatu lembaga sosial yang paling besar perannya bagi kesejahteraan dan kelestarian anggota-anggotanya, terutama anak-anak. Keluarga merupakan lingkungan sosial yang terpenting bagi perkembangan dan pembentukan pribadi anak. Keluarga merupakan wadah tempat bimbingan dan latihan anak selama kehidupan mereka. Diharapkan dari keluarga lah seseorang dapat menempuh kehidupannya dengan matang dan dewasa dan penuh mawaddah wa rahmah.

Berbicara mengenai pendidikan anak, paling besar pengaruhnya adalah ibu. Di tangan ibu, keberhasilan pendidikan anak-anaknya, walau tentunya keikutsertaan bapak, tidak dapat diabaikan begitu saja. Ibu memainkan peran yang penting di dalam mendidik anak-anaknya, terutama masa balita. Pendidikan dalam keluarga di sini meliputi, pendidikan iman, moral, fisik/jasmani, intelektual, psikologis, dan sosial.

Peranan ibu di dalam mendidik anaknya dibedakan menjadi tiga, pertama, ibu sebagai pemenuh kebutuhan anak. Kedua, ibu sebagai suri teladan  bagi anak. Terakhir, ibu sebagai pemberi motivasi bagi kelangsungan kehidupan anak.

Peranan ibu sebagai pemenuh kebutuhan bagi anak. Ini sangat penting terutama ketika dalam kebergantungan total terhadap ibunya, yakni berusia 0–5 tahun. Kemudian tetap berlangsung sampai periode anak sekolah, bahkan menjelang dewasa. Ibu perlu menyediakan waktu bukan saja untuk selalu bersama, tapi juga berinteraksi maupun berkomunikasi secara terbuka dan timbal balik dengan anaknya.

Pada dasarnya kebutuhan seseorang meliputi kebutuhan fisik, psikis, sosial, dan spiritual. Kebutuhan fisik merupakan kebutuhan makan, minum, pakaian, tempat tinggal, dan lainnya. Psikis meliputi kebutuhan akan kasih sayang, rasa aman, diterima, dan dihargai. Sedangkan kebutuhan sosial akan diperoleh anak dari kelompok di luar lingkungan keluarganya.

Seorang ibu harus memberikan atau memuaskan kebutuhan anak secara wajar dan bertanggung jawab, tidak berlebihan maupun tak kurang. Pemenuhan kebutuhan anak secara berlebihan atau kurang akan menimbulkan pribadi yang kurang sehat di masa yang akan datang. Dalam memenuhi kebutuhan psikis anak, seorang ibu harus mampu menciptakan situasi yang aman bagi putra-putrinya. Ibu diharapkan dapat membantu anak apabila mereka menemui kesulitan-kesulitan. Perasaan aman anak yang diperoleh dari rumah akan dibawa keluar rumah, artinya anak akan tidak mudah cemas dalam menghadapi masalah-masalah yang timbul.

Peranan Ibu sebagai suri teladan bagi anaknya. Dalam mendidik anak, seorang ibu harus mampu menjadi teladan bagi anak-anaknya. Mengingat bahwa perilaku orang tua, khususnya ibu, akan ditiru yang kemudian dijadikan panduan dalam perilaku anak, harus mampu menjadi teladan bagi mereka. Dalam hal ini yang harus diperhatikan oleh orang tua dalam mendidik anak adalah  proses mendidik yang disesuaikan tingkat kecerdasan anak itu sendiri. Kecerdasan anak yang berumur 0–5 tahun terbatas pada inderawinya saja, akal pikiran, dan perasaannya belum berfungsi secara maksimal.

Sejak anak lahir dari rahim seorang ibu, maka ibulah yang banyak mewarnai dan memengaruhi perkembangan pribadi, perilaku, dan akhlak anak. Untuk membentuk perilaku anak yang baik tidak hanya melalui bil lisan tetapi juga dengan bil haal yaitu mendidik anak lewat tingkah laku. Sejak anak lahir, ia akan selalu melihat dan  mengamati gerak gerik atau tingkah laku ibunya. Dari tingkah laku ibunya itulah, anak akan senantiasa melihat dan meniru yang kemudian diambil, dimiliki, dan diterapkan dalam kehiduapnnya. Dalam perkembangan anak, proses identifikasi sudah mulai bisa dilakukan ketika si anak berusia 3–5 tahun.

Kini, anak cenderung menjadikan ibu yang merupakan orang yang dapat memenuhi segala kebutuhannya maupun orang yang paling dekat dengan dirinya sebagai figur/contoh/teladan bagi sikap maupun perilakunya. Anak akan mengambil, kemudian memiliki nilai-nilai, sikap maupun perilaku ibu. Dari sini jelas bahwa perkembangan kepribadian anak bermula dari keluarga, dengan cara anak mengambil nilai-nilai yang ditanamkan orang tua baik secara sadar maupun tidak. Dalam hal ini hendaknya orang tua harus

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menjadi contoh yang positif bagi anak-anaknya.

Anak akan mengambil nilai-nilai, sikap maupun perilaku orang tua, tidak hanya apa yang secara sadar diberikan pada anaknya misal melalui nasihat, tapi juga dari perilaku orang tua yang tidak disadari. Kita sering melihat banyak orang tua yang menasihati anaknya tapi mereka sendiri tidak melakukannya. Hal ini akan mengakibatkan anak tidak sepenuhnya mengambil nilai norma yang ditanamkan.

Jadi, untuk melakukan peran sebagai suri teladan, ibu sendiri harus sudah memiliki nilai-nilai itu sebagai milik pribadinya yang tercermin dalam sikap dan perilakunya. Hal ini penting artinya bagi proses belajar anak-anak dalam usaha untuk menyerap apa yang ditanamkan. Sepatutnya, ibu tidak hanya bisa menyuruh dan interupsi terhadap anaknya, tapi mengajak langsung apa yang terbaik.

Peranan ibu sebagi pemberi motivasi bagi kelangsungan kehidupan anaknya. Sejak masa kelahiran seorang anak, proses pertumbuhan berbagai organ belum sepenuhnya lengkap maksimal. Perkembangan dari proses organ-organ ini sangat ditentukan oleh motivasi/rangsangan yang diterima anak dari ibunya. Rangsangan yang diberikan oleh ibu, akan memperkaya pengalaman dan mempunyai pengaruh yang besar bagi perkembangan kognitif anak. Bila pada bulan-bulan pertama anak kurang mendapatkan stimulasi visual, perhatian terhadap lingkungan sekitar juga akan berkurang.

Stimulasi verbal dari ibu akan sangat memperkaya kemampuan bahasa anak baik dari kualitas maupun kuantitasnya. Kesediaan ibu untuk berbicara dengan anaknya akan mengembangkan proses bicara anak. Jadi, perkembangan mental anak akan sangat ditentukan oleh seberapa motivasi/stimulasi/rangsangan yang diberikan ibu terhadap anaknya. Bentuk rangsangan dapat berupa cerita-cerita, macam-macam alat permainan yang edukatif atau bisa juga mengajak rekreasi yang dapat memperkaya pengalamannya. Di sini lah sosok ibu dituntut untuk terus meningkatkan kualitas dirinya dengan memperkaya sebanyak mungkin ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni sebagai modal awal dalam rangka keberhasilannya sebagai pemberi motivasi dalam mengantarkan kelangsungan hidup anak yang cerdas serta sukses.

Dari uraian di atas, jelaslah kunci keberhasilan seorang anak di kehidupannya sangat bergantung peran ibu dalam memotivasi dan mendorong agar dapat mencapai cita-citanya. Sikap ibu yang penuh dengan kasih sayang, memberi kesempatan pada anak untuk memperkaya pengalaman, menerima, menghargai, dan menjadi teladan yang positif bagi anaknya, akan besar pengaruhnya terhadap perkembangan pribadi anak. Jadi dapat dikatakan bagaimana gambaran anak akan dirinya ditentukan oleh interaksi yang dilakukan ibu dengan anak.

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